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Explanation of Climatological Normals


    Climatological normals of monthly temperature and precipitation, except for Japanese observatories, are calculated using monthly data from the period 1981 - 2010 of GHCN (the Global Historical Climatology Network) distributed by NCDC (the National Climate Data Center, USA), and CLIMAT messages archived at JMA. For Japanese observatories, climatological normals are calculated using daily data from 1981 - 2010 archived at JMA.
    We calculated the climatological normals for observatories that have monthly data of more than eight years for all months. A mark of "-" in the list indicates no data.


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