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HOME > Global Warming Projection

Global Warming Projection and Climate Change Monitoring

This page outlines two series of publications issued by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA).
The first is the Global Warming Projection, which covers the results of experimental numerical projections of future climate with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (CGCM) and a regional climate model (RCM) developed by the JMA's Meteorological Research Institute (MRI) to assess the effects of global warming on the climate.
The second is the Climate Change Monitoring Report, which covers the climatic conditions of Japan and the world, recent trends in greenhouse gas concentrations and ozone layer depletion to give a comprehensive perspective of global climate change.
JMA monitors long-term changes in global average surface temperature anomalies for the purpose of monitoring global warming. This page shows long-term changes in annual and monthly anomalies of the global average surface temperature.

Announcement: Figures and data relating to global average surface temperature anomalies have been updated due to re-evaluation of past land observation data reported in the form of CLIMAT messages.

Main Products

Global Average Surface Temperature Anomalies

Annual mean value ( 2021 )

Seasonal mean value ( Spring (June to August 2022) )

Monthly mean value ( Aug 2022 )

Climate Change Monitoring Report     published in June 2022

  • The 2021 edition (full text (PDF: 11.2 MB))
    • News
    • Chapter 1 - Climate in 2021
    • Chapter 2 - Climate Change

  • Link to the back numbers
  • Global Warming Projection

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    Tokyo Climate Center, Climate Prediction Division.
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