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Annual Report on Global Extreme Climate Events -----

Major extreme climate events and weather-related disasters during this year

Extreme Climate Event

Extreme Climate Monitoring

Relevant Charts -Annual-

Highlight

  • Annual mean temperatures were above normal in the most parts of the world, and were very high in the following areas: Siberia, from the northeastern to southern part of East Asia, Southeast Asia, the southern part of South Asia, Central Asia, the Middle East, from central to southern Europe, from the eastern part of Eastern Africa to Southern Africa, Alaska, from the southern part of North America to Central America, from the northern to eastern part of South America, and Australia. Annual mean temperatures were below normal in the central part of North America.
  • Extremely high temperatures were observed from Mauritius to South Africa throughout the year, and were frequently observed for seven months or more from the southern part of East Asia to the central part of Southeast Asia, from southern India to Sri Lanka, in and around southern Europe, from the eastern USA to the northwestern part of South America, in and around Brazil, and Australia.
  • Annual precipitation amounts were above normal in South Asia, from the northern Middle East to the northern part of Northern Africa, Alaska, the USA, and the northwestern part of South America. Annual precipitation amounts were below normal in the southeastern part of Southeast Asia, the western part of Northern Africa, the southwestern part of South America, and from eastern to central Australia. The annual precipitation amount in 2019 was the second highest in the contiguous USA since 1895 (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the USA), and was the lowest in Australia since 1900 (Bureau of Meteorology, Australia).
  • Extremely high precipitation amounts were frequently observed in and around Spain, from the Midwest to the southeastern USA, in and around northeastern Argentina. Extremely low precipitation amounts were frequently observed from the central part of the Malay Peninsula to Java Island, from eastern to central Europe, and southwestern Canada.

TypePeriodAreaRemarks
1TyphoonSeptember-October From the Pacific side of northern Japan to the Pacific side of eastern Japan
  • It was reported that Typhoon "FAXAI" in September and Typhoon "HAGIBIS" in October caused severe damages from the Pacific side of northern Japan to the Pacific side of eastern Japan, with estimated economic losses of more than US$3.5 billion in agricultural sectors alone (Cabinet office of Japan, as of December 2019).
2WarmJanuary, March, May, September-October In and around the northeastern part of East Asia
  • The monthly mean temperatures in Korea in May and September were the second highest and the third highest on record for respective months since 1973 (Korea Meteorological Administration).
  • The seasonal mean temperature in Okinawa/Amami region of Japan in winter (from December 2018 to February 2019) was the highest on record for winter since 1947 (Japan Meteorological Agency).
  • The seasonal mean temperatures in eastern and western Japan in autumn (from September to November) were the highest on record for autumn since 1946 (Japan Meteorological Agency).
3WarmFebruary-March, June-August From the northern to central part of Central Siberia
  • The monthly mean temperature in Russia in March was the third highest on record for March since 1891 (Hydrometcenter of Russia).
4Heavy Rain· TyphoonJune-August From eastern China to northern Thailand
  • It was reported that heavy rains, Typhoon "LEKIMA" and Typhoon "PODUL" from June to August caused a total of more than 240 fatalities from eastern China to northern Thailand (the government of China, the government of Viet Nam, European Commission).
5WarmJanuary-February, April-November From the southern part of East Asia to the central part of Southeast Asia
  • The annual mean temperature in Hong Kong in 2019 was the highest on record since 1885 (Hong Kong Observatory).
  • The monthly mean temperatures in Singapore in August and in September was the highest on record for respective months since 1929 (Meteorological Service Singapore).
  • The annual mean temperature in Singapore in 2019 was the highest on record since 1929 (Meteorological Service Singapore).
6DryJune-July, September-November From the central part of the Malay Peninsula to Java Island
  • The monthly precipitation amount in Singapore in September was the lowest on record for September since 1869 (Meteorological Service Singapore).
7Heavy RainMarch Eastern Indonesia
  • It was reported that heavy rains in March caused more than 200 fatalities in eastern Indonesia (EM-DAT).
8Heavy RainJuly-October In and around South Asia
  • It was reported that heavy rains from July to October caused a total of more than 2300 fatalities in and around South Asia (the government of India, the government of Pakistan, European Commission).
  • The monthly precipitation amount in India in September was the second highest on record for September since 1917 (Indian Meteorological Department).
9WarmFebruary-July, November-December From southern India to Sri Lanka
10Heavy RainMarch-April From the northern Middle East to India
  • It was reported that heavy rains from March to April caused a total of more than 370 fatalities from the northern Middle East to India (the government of India, the government of Pakistan, European Commission).
11WarmJanuary, May-June, September-October The Arabian Peninsula
  • The monthly mean temperatures in Bahrain in January and October were the highest on record for respective months since 1902 (Bahrain Meteorological Directorate).
12WarmJune-December In and around southern Europe
  • The monthly mean temperature in Germany in June was the highest on record for June since 1881 (Deutscher Wetterdienst).
  • The seasonal mean temperature in Germany in summer (from June to August) was the third highest on record for summer since 1881 (Deutscher Wetterdienst).
  • The annual mean temperature in Germany in 2019 was the second highest on record since 1881 (Deutscher Wetterdienst).
  • The seasonal mean temperature in France in summer (from June to August) was the third highest on record for summer since 1900 (Meteo France).
  • The annual mean temperature in France in 2019 was the third highest on record since 1900 (Meteo France).
13DryFebruary, April, June-August From eastern to central Europe
14Heat WaveJune-July From northern to central Europe
  • It was estimated that the two heatwaves in France from 24 June to 7 July and from 21 to 27 July caused a total of more than 1400 excess deaths (the government of France).
  • In southern France, 46.0 degrees Celsius was recorded at Verargues on 28 June, which was a new national maximum temperature record in France. In Paris, 42.6 degrees Celsius was recorded at the main Montsouris observatory on 25 July, which was the highest on record of this observatory since 1872 (Meteo France).
  • In northwestern Germany, 42.6 degrees Celsius was recorded at Lingen on 25 July, which was a new national maximum temperature record in Germany (Deutscher Wetterdienst).
  • In the southern Netherlands, 40.7 degrees Celsius was recorded at Gilze Rijen on 25 July, which was a new national maximum temperature record in Netherlands (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute).
  • In northern Belgium, 41.8 degrees Celsius was recorded at Begijnendijk on 25 July, which was a new national maximum temperature record in Belgium (Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium).
  • In central Luxemburg, 40.8 degrees Celsius was recorded at Steinsel on 25 July, which was a new national maximum temperature record in Luxemburg (the government of Luxemburg).
  • In the southeastern UK, 38.7 degrees Celsius was recorded at Cambridge on 25 July, which was a new national maximum temperature record in the UK (UK Met Office).
15WetApril, August-September, November In and around Spain
  • It was reported that severe flood in September caused economic losses of more than US$24 billion (EM-DAT), and it is estimated to be the worst flood in Spain since 1879 (The State Meteorological Agency, Spain).
16WarmJuly-September, November-December From the western part of Western Africa to the western part of Middle Africa
17Heavy RainOctober-December From the northern to western part of Eastern Africa
  • It was reported that heavy rains from October to December caused a total of more than 400 fatalities from the northern to western part of Eastern Africa (The government of Djibouti, UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, European Commission).
18WarmJanuary-December From Mauritius to South Africa
19CycloneMarch-April The southern part of Eastern Africa
  • It was reported that Cyclone "IDAI" in March and Cyclone "KENNETH" in April caused a total of more than 1,000 fatalities in the southern part of Eastern Africa (European Commission).
20WarmFebruary-March, June-July, September In and around Alaska
  • The monthly mean temperatures in Alaska in March, June, and July were the highest, the second highest, and the highest on record for respective months since 1925 (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the USA).
  • The annual mean temperature in Alaska in 2019 was the highest on record since 1925 (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the USA).
21DryMarch, May, November Southwestern Canada
22WetFebruary, April-May, September-October From the Midwestern to southeastern USA
  • The monthly precipitation amounts in the contiguous USA in February and May were the second highest on record for respective months since 1895 (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the USA).
  • The monthly precipitation amount in the Northern Rockies and Plains in September was the third highest for the month since 1895 (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the USA).
  • The seasonal precipitation amount in the contiguous USA in winter (from December 2018 to February 2019) was the highest on record for winter since 1896 (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the USA).
  • The annual precipitation amount in the contiguous USA in 2019 was the second highest on record since 1895 (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the USA).
23HurricaneSeptember From the eastern USA to the Bahamas
  • It was reported that Hurricane "DORIAN" caused a total of more than 70 fatalities from the eastern USA to the Bahamas (the government of the USA, the government of the Bahamas), and economic losses in the Bahamas were estimated at more than US$34 billion (Inter-American Development Bank).
24WarmFebruary, May-December From the eastern USA to the northwestern part of South America
  • The monthly mean temperatures in the southeastern USA in May and October were the second highest and the third highest on record for respective months since 1895 (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the USA).
  • The monthly mean temperature in the contiguous USA in September was the second highest on record for September since 1895 (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the USA).
  • The annual mean temperature in the southeastern USA in 2019 was the highest on record since 1895 (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the USA).
25WarmJanuary-February, May-June, August-December In and around Brazil
26WetJanuary, March, June In and around northeastern Argentina
27WarmJanuary, March, July, September-December Australia
  • The monthly mean temperatures in Australia in January, March, October, and December were the highest, the highest, the third highest, and the highest for respective months since 1910 (Bureau of Meteorology, Australia).
  • The seasonal mean temperature in Australia in summer (from December 2018 to February 2019) was the highest on record for summer since 1911 (Bureau of Meteorology, Australia).
  • The seasonal mean temperature in Australia in autumn (from March to May) was the third highest on record for autumn since 1910 (Bureau of Meteorology, Australia).
  • The annual mean temperature in Australia in 2019 was the highest on record since 1910 (Bureau of Meteorology, Australia).
The impacts of each disaster are based on EM-DAT and reports by United Nations organizations and each government.
EM-DAT: The Emergency Events Database - Université catholique de Louvain (UCL) - CRED, D. Guha-Sapir - www.emdat.be, Brussels, Belgium.
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