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HOME > Global Warming Projection

Global Warming Projection and Climate Change Monitoring

This page outlines two series of publications issued by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA).
The first is the Climate Change in Japan - the report on assessment of observed/projected climate change relating to the atmosphere, land and oceans, which includes the results of experimental numerical projections of future climate with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (CGCM) and a regional climate model (RCM) developed by the JMA's Meteorological Research Institute (MRI) to assess the effects of global warming on the climate.
The second is the Climate Change Monitoring Report, which covers the climatic and ocean conditions of Japan and the world, recent trends in greenhouse gas concentrations to give a comprehensive perspective of global climate change.
JMA monitors long-term changes in global average surface temperature anomalies for the purpose of monitoring global warming. This page shows long-term changes in annual and monthly anomalies of the global average surface temperature.

Announcement: Figures and data relating to global average surface temperature anomalies have been updated due to re-evaluation of past land observation data reported in the form of CLIMAT messages.

Main Products

Global Average Surface Temperature Anomalies

Annual mean value ( 2023 )

Seasonal mean value ( Spring (March 2024 to May 2024) )

Monthly mean value ( May 2024 )

Climate Change Monitoring Report     published in July 2023

  • The 2022 edition (full text (PDF: 12.4 MB))
    • News
    • Chapter 1 - Climate in 2022
    • Chapter 2 - Climate Change

  • Link to the back numbers
  • Climate Change in Japan     published in December 2020

  • The 2020 edition (abridged edition (PDF: 1.7 MB))
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    Tokyo Climate Center, Climate Prediction Division.
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